Tokyo 2020; Venue capacity: 2016 vs. 2020

Sport Capacity Rio 2016 Capacity Tokyo 2020
Aquatics (Artistic Swimming) 5300 15000
Aquatics (Diving) 5300 15000
Aquatics (Marathon Swimming) 5000 5500
Aquatics (Swimming) 18000 15000
Aquatics (Water Polo) 1 18000 4700
Aquatics (Water Polo) 2 5300
Archery 1800 5600
Athletics 60000 68000
Athletics (Marathon) 18000 TBA
Athletics (Race Walk) ? 700
Badminton 6500 7200
Basketball 1 16000 21000
Basketball 2 5000
BMX Cycling 7500 6600
Boxing 9000 TBA
Canoe (Slalom) 8000 7500
Canoe (Sprint) 30000 12800
Ceremonies 78600 68000
Cycling (Mountain Bike) 27500 11500
Cycling (Road – Time Trial) ? 22000
Cycling (Road) 5000 22000
Cycling (Track) 5800 3600
Equestrian 35200 9300 + 16000
Fencing 10000 8000
Football 1 78600 68000
Football 2 60000 48000
Football 3 69900 41000
Football 4 76000 49000
Football 5 44500 40000
Football 6 50000 64000
Football 7 48000 72000
Golf 25000 25000
Gymnastics 12000 12000
Handball 12000 10200
Hockey 1 10000 15000
Hockey 2 5000
Judo 10000 11000
Modern Pentathlon 15000 + 5000 + 2000 48000 + 7200
Rowing 30000 16000
Rugby 15000 48000
Sailing 10000 3600
Shooting 7250 6800
Table Tennis 6500 7000
Taekwondo 10000 10000
Tennis 19750 19900
Triathlon 5000 5500
Volleyball 11800 15000
Volleyball (Beach) 12000 12000
Weightlifting 6500 5000
Wrestling 10000 10000

Rio 2016; Thesis: Distributive justice and transportation equity: inequality in accessibility in Rio de Janeiro (Rafael Henrique Moraes Pereira)

Photo: Martijn Giebels / Architecture of the Games



Public transport policies play a key role in shaping the social and spatial structure of cities. These policies influence how easily people can access opportunities, including health and educational services and job positions. The accessibility impacts of transport policies thus have important implications for social inequalities and for the promotion of just and inclusive cities. However, in the transportation literature, there is still little theoretically informed understanding of justice and what it means in the context of transport policies. Moreover, few studies have moved beyond descriptive analyses of accessibility inequalities to evaluate how much those inequalities result from transport policies themselves. This is particularly true in cities from the global South, where accessibility and equity have so far remained marginal concerns in the policy realm.

This thesis builds on theories of distributive justice and examines how they can guide the evaluation of transport policies and plans. It points to pathways for rigorous assessment of the accessibility impacts of transport policies and it contributes to current discussions on transportation equity. A justice framework is developed to assess the distributional effects of transport policies. This framework is then applied to evaluate recent transport policies developed in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in preparation to host sports mega-events, such as the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games, which included substantial expansion of the rail and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) infrastructure. This research presents ex-post analyses of the policies implemented between 2014 and 2017 and ex-ante analysis of an as yet unfinished BRT project. It evaluates how the planned transport legacy of those mega-events impacted accessibility to sports venues, healthcare facilities, public schools and job opportunities for different income groups.

The results show that there were overall accessibility benefits from the expansion in transport infrastructure between 2014 and 2017, but these were generally offset by the reduction in bus service levels that followed an economic crisis that hit the city after the Olympics. Quasi-counterfactual analysis suggests that, even if the city had not been hit by the economic crisis, recent transport investments related to mega-events would have led to higher accessibility gains for wealthier groups and increased inequalities in access to opportunities. Results suggest that those investments had, or would have had, greater impact on inequalities of access to jobs than in access to schools and healthcare facilities. The evaluation of the future accessibility impacts of the unfinished BRT corridor, nonetheless, indicates that such project could significantly improve access to job opportunities for a large share of Rio’s population, particularly lower-income groups. Spatial analysis techniques show that the magnitude and statistical significance of these results depend on the spatial scale and travel time threshold selected for cumulative opportunity accessibility analysis. These results demonstrate that the ad-hoc methodological choices of accessibility analysis commonly used in the academic and policy literature can change the conclusions of equity assessments of transportation projects.


Pereira, R. H. M. (2018). Distributive justice and transportation equity: inequality in accessibility in Rio de Janeiro (PhD thesis). University of Oxford.


You can read/download this thesis here.

Rio 2016; Highlight video 2018 ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships in Deodoro

Video by Planet Canoe on YouTube


Whitewater Stadium Deodoro: Facts & Figures

  • Architect; Vigliecca & Associados
  • Consultants; Whitewater Parks International
  • Year completed; 2016
  • Volume lake/reservoir; 25.000 m3
  • Capacity; 8.424 temporary seats (Rio 2016)
  • Olympic Sports; Canoe Slalom
  • Paralympic Sports; –
  • Legacy; Swimming pool / recreational pool (after removal of the obstacles)



IOC; Olympism in Action Forum Buenos Aires 2018 – Discussion: Hosting the Olympic Games: City Perspectives

Hosting the Olympic Games: City Perspectives

IOC Media on YouTube
There are many reasons why hosting the Olympic Games is attractive to a city or country. The expectations that the event will have a positive impact, both tangible and intangible, on local communities is alive and well. From developing an underserved part of a city and expanding much-needed infrastructure to boosting the local economy and increasing tourism, hosting such a large-scale event can bring about great opportunities. However, cost overruns, questions over resource use and perceived corruption among other challenges have left some populations hesitant about their city’s bid to host the Olympic Games. This session will seek to examine the arguments for and against hosting the Olympic Games, and shine a light on the real experiences, both challenging and inspiring, faced by organisers from past and upcoming Games.

Moderator: Sonali Shah, Broadcaster and Journalist, United Kingdom

– Mariana Behr, Former Head of Engagement and Education, Rio 2016, Brazil
– Lord Paul Deighton, Former CEO, London 2012, United Kingdom
– Chris Dempsey, Co-Founder, No Boston Olympics, United States
– John Furlong OC, OBC, President and CEO, Vancouver 2010, Canada
– Shu’an Yang, Vice President, Beijing 2022, China


INFO: This video contains content from International Olympic Committee, who has blocked it from display on other websites on copyright grounds. Therefor, links to this video will open in a new window.