Seoul 1988; Olympic Stadium (2)

Photo: Martijn Giebels


Venue Olympic Stadium
Cluster Seoul Sports Complex
Architect Kim Swoo-geun
Capacity 69.950 Seats
Olympic Sports Opening and Closing Ceremonies, Athletics, Football (final), Equestrian (jumping individual final)
Legacy use Home of Seoul E-Land FC




Floor Plan

Source: Seoul Olympic Games Official Report Volume One (Page 168-169)



Photo: Martijn Giebels


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Beijing 2008; IOC: Beijing’s former industrial complex Shougang district sees sustainable urban regeneration push


Shougang district, once the burning heart of Beijing’s industrial complex, is now standing proud as a monument to the city’s urban regeneration efforts. Cooling towers are being transformed into Olympic venues, blast furnaces into training centres and an iron ore storage tower has even become home to the Beijing 2022 Olympic Games Organising Committee. Ten years on from hosting its first summer Olympic Games and four years out from its debut Olympic Winter Games, the Shougang district is getting a new look.

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Rio 2016; Legacy two-year on; Videos by the IOC




Beijing 2008; IOC: Beijing builds on stadium success by adding to 2008’s architectural legacy

Bird's Nest, Beijing, May 2010


Olympic Games Beijing 2008 left the city with some of the best sports stadiums in the world, which will again come under the global spotlight at the Olympic Winter Games in 2022. Ten years on from the unforgettable Opening Ceremony in the ‘Bird’s Nest’, we look at how the venues are being reworked and how new developments will add to China’s reputation as a sporting capital.

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Moscow 1980 & Sochi 2014; Two Renovated Olympic Stadiums used for the FIFA World Cup

Today the FIFA World Cup 2018 starts in Moscow. Two Olympic stadiums that have been renovated in recent years are used for the tournament.


Moscow 1980; Luzhniki Stadium

By, CC BY 4.0, Link

Olympic Games

During the 1980 Summer Olympics, the Central Lenin Stadium was the main venue which hosted the Opening and Closing Ceremonies, Athletics, Football finals, and the Individual Jumping Grand Prix. The stadium had at that time a spectator capacity of 103.000. (read more)


2018 FIFA World Cup

  • Capacity: 81.000 Seats
  • World Cup matches: 4 in the group stage, 1 round of 16, 1 semi-final, final


Sochi 2014; Fisht Olympic Stadium

By Эдгар Брещанов –, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

Olympic Games

The Fisht Olympic Stadium in Sochi is converted into an open-air football stadium. Four years ago the stadium was used for the ceremonies of the Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. The stadium then had a capacity of 40,000 seats.


2018 FIFA World Cup

  • Capacity: 45,000 Seats
  • World Cup matches: 4 in the group stage, 1 round of 16, 1 quarter-final

PyeongChang 2018; The Legacy of PyeongChang 2018

The PyeongChang Organizing Committee for the 2018 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (POCOG) has published an article about the legacy of the Games.


The Legacy of PyeongChang 2018

The PyeongChang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games have come to an end, leaving behind a proud and lasting legacy. This momentous event has touched the lives of so many people in different ways, with many unique journeys sure to be told for generations to come.
Here are five ways that the games have made a lasting impression and a positive impact on the Republic of Korea and the world.


#Economic Legacy
The upgrading of vital infrastructure was one of the many direct benefits to the Republic of Korea as a result of hosting the Games.
A fit-for-purpose traffic network is essential for the smooth operation of the Olympic and Paralympic Games. In 2018 it was no different; to help bring athletes, spectators (and a large number of staff) to PyeongChang from all over the world, road and rail networks were upgraded in the host nation.

As a result of this investment, visitors were able to move to Gangwon-do faster and more conveniently than before. The key features of this development were the Second Yeongdong Expressway (opened 10 November, 2016), the Dongseo Expressway (opened 30 June, 2017) and the Gyeonggang Line High-Speed Railway (opened 22 December, 2017). These trunk roads and rail upgrade connected the capital area to the host city.

56.6 kilometres of road were also constructed in 16 sections at major key points in the hosting city. Three cities and counties and 13 districts were also designated as special zones under the Special Act on Support for the 2018 Pyeongchang Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games.

The apartments that were used as the Olympic Village and Media Village during the Games have now been completely sold to the local residents. People will move right in to the eight apartment blocks for 600 households in the PyeongChang Olympic Village, nine apartment blocks for 922 households in Gangneung Olympic Village and23 apartment blocks for 2,561 households in Gangneung Media Village as soon as the restoration works are completed.

There are also refinement projects for the surrounding scenery currently taking place. As well as constructing symbolic sculptures for the Olympic Games, flags of all nations were installed around major routes, old facilities have been modified and public restrooms were improved. Amenities have been established to enhance accessibility for people with impairment. This is to turn the city into a tourist city where all tourists can stay comfortably.

The outline for the post-utilisation plan of the Games facilities are now almost in shape. The Games venues will be utilised as public sports facility or serve as training centres for the athletes from home and abroad under the agreement between the city of Gangneung, Korea National Sport University and the Catholic Kwandong University in support of the popularisation of winter sports.


#Environmental Legacy
There was also a notable effort to try make an eco-friendly Olympic and Paralympic Games. First, a new wind generating farm was built in order to provide eco-friendly energy during the Games. Korean Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) supplied 150 electric cars in Gangneung, Jeongseon and PyeongChang. This facilitated the transport of Games management staff back and forth between operational centres and venues.

The new venues in the host city, constructed according to the Green Architecture Support Act, are required to meet the standards of certifications with ratings above level 4. The new venues for PyeongChang 2018 all received the Green Building Certification. Forests that were uprooted due to venue construction were substituted with alternative planting efforts to offset a negative environmental impact. Ultimately, 174 hectares of offset planting will occur in Goseong,
PyeongChang and Taebaek of Gangwon-do province. In particular, a total of 41.8 billion Korean Won will be spent to restore the ecological system around the Jeongseon Alpine Centre.


#Cultural Legacy
The Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism and the Korean Olympic Committee (KOC) are to join hands and shell out 93.9 billion Korean Won to build training environments and support outstanding athletes in order to promote winter sports development projects in Korea. The ‘Dream Programme’ that has been held 14 times since 2004 to 2017, played a huge role in introducing unfamiliar winter sports to the youth in Korea.

The Paralympic Winter Games, in particular, has drawn the attention of many into fostering outstanding athletes for the winter para-sports. Through such efforts, Korea was able to recruit excellent coaches from overseas and fund new equipment, hence improving people’s understanding towards people with impairment and the Paralympic Games. No doubt, Korea has gained a foothold to grow into a new winter para-sports powerhouse.
Olympic education programmes have been run across all schools nationwide. This programme, run by the PyeongChang Organizing Committee for the 2018 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (POCOG), was arranged to broaden career choices for the youngsters by providing proper understanding and recognition of the Olympic and Paralympic winter sports.

The ‘Cultural Olympiad’, where festivals were held every day, served as an opportunity to showcase various cultures of Korea to the world. The Cultural ICT Experience Zone, interact with, Live Sites where spectators could watch the competitions through big screens all managed to make PyeongChang 2018 a culture-rich festival.

We cannot leave out the passionate volunteers that helped during the Games. 13,503 volunteers for the Olympic Games and 6,886 volunteers for the Paralympic Games have gathered and they were the great foundation that allowed the successful hosting of the Games. The POCOG, along with the Korean Food Foundation, came up with the ‘The Top Ten Most Favoured Korean Foods Menu Around the World’. The menus received positive reviews that they conveyed the characteristics of Korean food while at the same time applying the newest trend to make Korean food culture more popular.


#Peace Legacy
One of the most memorable issues at PyeongChang 2018 was the participation of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) at the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Even before the Games started, POCOG, Gangwon-do Provincial Office and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) constantly called for the DPRK to participate in the Games. They were finally able to come to an agreement on the joint parade of the athletes from North and South Korea and the formation of Joint Korean Women’s Ice Hockey team. The Games did not only bring a message of peace from the Korean Peninsula, it was also a milestone in improving the relationship between the two Koreas.
Olympic Truce Murals with autographs of athletes and officials who support the principles of the Olympic Truce were also installed at the Olympic Villages in PyeongChang and Gangneung. These murals will be relocated in the host city after the Games to be preserved as the symbol of the ‘Peace Olympics’ and can be visited by tourists.


#ICT Legacy
The PyeongChang 2018 was the ever-first Games to introduce high-tech ICT technologies, such as providing 5G services during the Games. The most notable utilisation of 5G services was at the broadcasting sites. The movement of the athletes were shot from various angles and then produced as 360 degree footage to help the viewers to best understand the athletes’ performances and judges’ scores.
Applications that provide ‘Augmented Reality (AR)’ and automatic translation services in eight major languages were also available throughout the games. Altogether 85 robots across 11 different models were used to provide spectator guides, assist with clean-ups, as well as being used for the Torch Relay.